Technique Tuesday: Depth of Field

For this week, I will be doing a general overview of depth of field: what is it? How do you change it? What does it do for photos? Once you gain an idea of how depth of field works, it can be one of the funnest things to play around with!

Depth of field can be used to greatly enhance your photos. You can make it so the focus is on something as small as an eyelash or a strand of hair, or make it so that your entire frame is in focus (this also depends on your lenses). Depth of field is one of the funnest but also trickiest parts of photography. Time to open your mind and hopefully how I explain it will make some sense!

Depth of Field

Depth of field is basically the the distance between objects in a photo that are acceptably in focus. It is controlled on your camera by the aperture.

The aperture in a camera is the hole that light enters; okay, easy so far. What you may recognize it as is the f-stop. F-stop refers to how many “stops” or levels it takes to reach a certain depth of field. These are called “stops” because at each f-stop there is a part of the mechanism that is stopping further light from entering (basically, the diameter of the hole).

Okay, so far: depth of field, or the objects in focus in a photo, are controlled by your camera’s aperture, a hole that allows light in. This hole changes size (diameter) to allow different levels of light in; each of these is called an f-stop.

So far so good, right?

These f-stops are recognizable when you go into a store and look at all the camera lenses on sale. You’ll see on the boxes the focal length (200 mm) and usually the f-stop near it: it’s the number f/1.6 or f/4.5, something like that.

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these things, circled very professionally by me.

 

So what exactly do those f-stop numbers mean? When you are playing around with your camera on the manual setting (NOTE: as you all should be doing! There is no way to get to know your camera like manual) or aperture priority, you see these numbers scrolling past and apparently, they are supposed to mean something. Maybe you’ve ignored them for some time. Maybe they are not of much interest. Here is where it gets a bit tricky. It is very important and very interesting, but it takes some reciting over and over and practicing, over and over.

When I refer to f-stop numbers, I mean the maximum aperture of the lens, which here means not the biggest number the maximum ability of your aperture to change its diameter, which can be a small f-stop number because it’s a large diameter (stick with me here…).

  • The lower the f-stop number, the wider your aperture diameter.
  • The lower the f-stop number, the more light is entering your camera.
  • The lower the f-stop number, the shallower your depth of field (meaning you can focus on smaller things, with more being blurred).
  • The lower the f-stop number, generally the faster the lens.
  • The lower the f-stop number, the more flexibility with aperture sizes the lens has.

For example, f/1.0 is one of the most open apertures. This number means much light is entering your camera. At the same time, it means you have a shallow depth of field, so you can take photos of very specific elements or details of an object, like a leaf, or a ring:

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In this instance, I was focusing on the ring. Notice how even the leaves are blurred and my background (which happens to be the window out of my bedroom) is completely blurred. This is at f/2.0 at 1/500 shutter speed, shot with a 50 mm lens with maximum f/1.4

When you are able to focus on only these types of details, conversely you must deal with more light entering (remember, the lower the f-stop the more light coming in). To compensate for this I will usually make my shutter speed faster. If you use aperture priority shooting for these types of shots you may not have to worry about it as much, however I like complete control over my photos so I usually end up adjusting both elements to get the look I want. Another thing to be aware of is your ISO, your camera’s sensitivity to light. All three of these elements play together to get the exposure you want.

For example:

You hold your camera up and take a photo. Light from the scene goes through the glass lens and through a hole (the aperture) the size you have made it by choosing an f-stop; right behind it is the shutter curtain, which opens for a fraction of a second to allow the amount of light–determined by the aperture diameter–through. The camera’s overall sensitivity to this light is based off your camera’s ISO levels. And.. tada! Photo!

So there is lots going on despite us just paying attention to the depth of field! I wish I could do a big in depth talk about all of it but that is a bit overwhelming. Basically, just remember this: when working on your depth of field shots, you must compensate for whichever f-stop you are using (shutter speed, for example).

What about if we want a shot with everything in focus, like landscapes? For these shots you would change your f-stop to a larger number, which means less light is getting in, which means…? Right! The deeper your depth of field.

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The above barn photo was taken at f/22 at 1/2000 of a second because it was a sunny day. Notice how every detail is in focus, and that is because of my chosen depth of field (f/22). If I had made it smaller, only what my camera had focused on would be in focus.

 

So what have I talked about so far?

SUMMARY: That the depth of field, or what is in focus in your photo, depends on the aperture diameter you choose, which is controlled by the f-stop. The smaller the f-stop number, the wider the aperture diameter (more light) and the shallower your depth of field (less in focus, small details in focus). The larger the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture diameter (less light) and the deeper your depth of field (all in focus).

So how does one figure this stuff out? This is how I did it. One day I set my camera on manual and refused to take it off. I barely even do now, unless I choose one of the priority shootings (Av, Tv) but rarely. I am comfortable with it now only because I forced myself to use it and only it. I took a lot of photos. I fiddled around with just the aperture number to see the difference it made to my photos. Then I would fiddle around with both it and shutter speed. I took lots of bad photos. LOTS. I still take many bad photos. Do not be discouraged! If the depth of field is not what you want or what you envisioned, ask yourself: why is it not working? What can I do to to change it? The fun part of photography is the playing around and testing new things. Not comfortable with your knowledge of depth of field? Force yourself to learn it by going out and taking photos with depth of field as your priority of the day.

It is easy to take photos with everything in focus. Or just what your camera decides to be in focus based on automatic settings. Try not to do that as much. Make sure you are changing the aperture number! Deal with what the camera does afterward. Understand why suddenly everything went crazy bright and how you can fix that exposure. Turn the focus to manual so you can adjust it to what you want; the smaller the detail, the harder it is for auto focus to figure out what on earth you want to do.

Read about it! Look at diagrams! Depth of field is fun because it adds a unique element. When I bought my 50 mm lens last year with its f/1.4 I fell in love. And I still want more with smaller f-stops. More! It’s especially fun for portraiture:

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Wide depth of field is still fun and I love doing landscape photography, but man is it ever fun having a versatile f-stop ability on a lens! I recommend everyone try playing around with both large and small f-stops and see the results.

Hopefully that was somewhat clear and did not overload your brains. Please comment with any questions, ideas, or tidbits! 🙂

 


Portraits: Adrienne

Earlier this month Adrienne and I woke up at 6 AM to get to Wreck Beach by UBC for the sunrise. I can safely say we beat it. The light was gorgeous, but took lots of fast changes on my part to try and keep up with it! Going from pitch black to early morning sun in under an hour is an exercise in using your camera, that is for sure!

Anyhow, we had a lot of fun! Shooting Adri is so fun because she’s already a pro in front of the camera; she’s a crazy famous cosplayer and does photoshoots all of the time! So I decided this time around I wanted to take photos of her just as herself: no make-up, no intense outfits, just her and her beautiful face and the ocean as our background. It was very relaxing, lots of fun, and it was totally empty, except for some seagulls with attitude.

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Heehee, I love this one of her laughing!

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Portraits: Dan and Nyomi

So this past Sunday I was lucky enough to photograph my two friends, Dan and Nyomi. We drove out 2 hours from Vancouver to Alexandra Bridge past Hope, which is up in the mountains… and it is breathtaking! Also the bridge is just a grill with the Fraser river rushing beneath you, no big deal.

There was pouring rain when we left but with a bit of optimism and good luck it lightened up to let us take photos; the sun even came out! I actually liked the bit of rain, if you look closely in some photos you can see it sprinkling in the background. It was lovely lighting and I absolutely loved the dark green trees, the fog, and this great old bridge as a backdrop! Kudos goes to Dan for his idea to visit this place. Aside from taking photos of my friends that I hope they will be able to enjoy for years to come, it was so nice to see them loosening up in front of the camera, particularly my camera shy yet very handsome friend Dan.

I hope they enjoyed it! Here are a few of the photos from that day. 🙂

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These goofs.


Technique Tuesday: Rule of Thirds

Time for Technique Tuesday! These are posts I do every other week or so with different techniques and ideas, tricks and tips that I use in my photography and want to share. This time I’m going to go over a basic move that I learned in my high school photography class (or more likely my dad at an early age) that has saved my life countless times. It is now an automatic reaction of mine to use this “rule of thirds”. Once you know how to utilize it, you will make well-balanced, visually pleasing photos. Not only that but then you get to play around with it and bend it, which is just as fun!

What is the Rule of Thirds?

The Rule of Thirds is a visual mathematic-esque rule (so I’m told). It was actually created by Renaissance painters when they wanted to add a bit more depth to their paintings. The idea is that the eye wants to roam across the screen, not just focus on the center. It splits your photo up into 9 equal parts (hence the term thirds). When you look through your viewfinder, you see the rectangular shape that your image will be framed in. What the Rule of Thirds does is cut that rectangle into 9 equal pieces, like so:

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The goal of your subject placement using this rule is to place it in one of the segments of thirds (the left or right vertical, the top or bottom horizontal, or the cross-section of lines).

Notice the placement of the flower in this case. It is on one side of the screen (the right column), with an unfurling petal taking up the middle column. The left column does have a distant flower in the background but it is not the focus. Your eyes are being pulled to the side and despite it not showing the entire flower, it is still somehow an acceptable looking photography, generally. Some cameras will actually allow you to have this setting on your viewfinder at all times, however I find it a bit too distracting.

These lines act as reference points for framing your photograph. Moving your subject to the vertical left or right thirds will generally help your photo work. This is also true for portraits!

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Notice how her face is nearly right at a cross section of the lines. Her other arm follows the left vertical line almost perfectly. This means our subject is well within the Rule of Thirds.

This also works in terms of your horizon line for things like landscapes:

 

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These are two examples of my photos when I used the lower line and the higher line. When your horizon line is in the middle of your photo it tends to be flat and boring looking. By utilizing the rule of thirds and moving your horizon line either low (image one) or high (image two) it spices up the dynamics of the environment in your photo. Notice in the bottom one how my foreground subject is in the bottom third right at the cross section, fitting nicely into the Rule.

So the way to use this is to go out and take lots of photos! Play around with moving your camera and your body around your subject or your view. Kneeling or squatting may suddenly create a more interesting dynamic in terms of horizon line than standing at normal eye level. Instead of putting your subject in the middle of the camera every time, try moving them around to the sides and the top or bottom.

Once you start producing images that follow this rule and are visually nice, it’s also fun to be able to play around and break the rule of thirds. “What?!” you must be asking. “Why say all that stuff about the Magic Rule of Thirds if you don’t use it all the time?” There is a big difference in not understanding that there is math in photography and just randomly taking photos, and knowing how to set up a geometrically pleasing photo and playing around with options to test it. The Rule of Thirds does not have to be used all of the time! I find, especially in portraiture, that I will consistently ignore the Rule of Thirds and do things like stick people’s heads in the very bottom, their feet at the very top, or place them down at the bottom corner and leave the majority of the photo for the landscape or empty space. That is the fun of photography and art in general: you learn the rules, and then you break them.

But whenever I am in doubt I consistently use the Rule of Thirds, without even thinking about it! All of the photos above were not planned this way. I did not stand and think and calculate. When you do it enough and understand what is visually pleasing to you and to the general public, you will begin to understand how it works. I bet most of you do this naturally already! But now you just know what it is. It’s a fairly natural way to take photos.

I hope this helps if you are interested in pursuing or working on your own photographic journey!

PS: Never underestimate the power of a center subject, either. However, be careful with how often you do it, or how often you place your subjects in the same spaces at all. Be sure to add some variety!